Carimbos chineses/ Chinese seals.

 

Vale à pena acessar o link abaixo, que é a fonte do texto que reproduzo aqui, para ver todas as ilustrações.

 

www.chinaonlinemuseum.com/carving-seals.php

 

The first record of a seal in China is from 544 BC. Actual bronze seals survive from the 5th century BC, and the practice of sealing must be some centuries older. The emblematic characters cast on Shang Dynasty (1600-1046 BC) bronze vessels imply the use of something like a seal for impressing on the mold. The royal seal and other seals of high office were termed xi (璽); other seals of rank and appointment were yin (印). In the Tang Dynasty (AD 618-907), it is said that Empress Consort Wu (武则天) disliked the fact that xi (璽) was close in sound to death (si, 死) or rest (xi, 息), so she changed the name of seals to treasure (bao, 宝). In subsequent centuries, both names were used. The imperial seal was traditionally large and square, often made of jade.

The private seals (印鑑, 圖章 or 印章) used in China, commonly square and reading merely “seal of so and so”, served as a confirmation of signature or a sign to be verified. They are made of stone, ivory, wood, or jade. Used by artists and collectors to mark their calligraphies, paintings and books, there is hardly a limit to their fanciful designs and phraseology. A man might own scores of seals, using his many sobriquets, especially those suggesting unworldly and rustic tastes. A seal is impressed in red ink—made of cinnabar in water and honey or suspended in sesame oil, hempseed oil, etc.—held ready on a pad of cotton or moss. The characters can be carved either in relief (阳雕), or in intaglio (阴刻). The former type appears in red (zhuwen, 朱文 or 阳文); while the latter appears in white (baiwen, 白文 or 阴文) against the inked ground.

       Seals are often used on Chinese calligraphy works and Chinese paintings. Owners or collectors of paintings or books will often add their personal or studio seals to pieces they have collected. This practice is an act of appreciation towards the work. Some artworks have not only seals but also inscriptions or afterwords from the collectors. For example, the Qianlong emperor was famous for his literary ambitions, including calligraphy, and had produced a large amount of texts affixed with his seal. He had as many as 20 different seals for use with inscriptions on calligraphy works and paintings he collected. A seal of a famous collector or connoisseur would become an integral part of a work of art and could substantially raise its value. Thus in the course of several centuries, some Chinese calligraphy works and paintings become covered by dozens of different seals.

 

A múltiplas faces do Islã (artigo meu publicado na Revista “Saeculum” da Universidade Federal da Paraíba)

 

No link que segue, um artigo meu sobre o Islã:

periodicos.ufpb.br/ojs/index.php/srh/article/view/22242/12335

RESUMO: O objetivo do presente artigo é o de elaborar uma síntese histórica do desenvolvimento do Islã, dando ênfase à diversidade de suas diversas correntes. Analisamos a primeira grande ruptura, que ocorreu no século VII, com a divisão entre sunitas e xiitas, e também o desmembramento do próprio xiismo em grupos distintos, ainda hoje bem demarcados uns dos outros. Em seguida, nossa análise recaiu sobre o sufismo, que permeia todo o conjunto do Islã, com adeptos entre os sunitas e xiitas e é emblemático da imensa multiplicidade de uma religião que é muito rica e passível de variadas interpretações. Como se trata de um trabalho de síntese histórica, utilizamos como fontes autores que escreveram sobre as diversas correntes do Islã, entre eles árabes e iranianos cujas análises podem ser consideradas “internas”, e também especialistas ocidentais que têm se debruçado longamente sobre o tema. Nossa conclusão é a de que muitas vezes se difunde a ideia de uma religiosidade homogênea, centrada na leitura do Corão e nos Hadith, em geral a partir de uma visão do grupo majoritário, que é sunita e no entanto é a diversidade e até mesmo o sincretismo, como no caso de algumas linhas sufistas, que se evidencia em uma leitura atenta das fontes.

Palavras Chave: Islã; Sunismo; Xiismo; Sufismo.

Artigo recebido em 08 abr. 2014.

Os Jesuítas na China (artigo meu publicado na Revista Tuiutí Ciência e Cultura)

 

Resumo: O presente artigo trata do papel dos jesuítas na divulgação de informações sobre o império chinês entre os séculos XVI e XVIII, informações estas que foram parte essencial na construção do imaginário ocidental sobre o Extremo Oriente. Os escritos dos inacianos circularentre a elite letrada europeia, transmitindo múltiplas visões que refletiam seu fascínio por vários aspectos da sociedade chinesa. As fontes de pesquisa utilizadas se constituem nos relatos e cartas produzidos pelos jesuítas nos longos anos nos quais foram protagonistas, junto com o mandarinato chinês, de um rico processo de encontro de culturas. A análise das referidas fontes levou à conclusão de que os padres da Companhia de Jesus, em suas muitas atividades, integraram-se de modo excepcional na sociedade chinesa, alcançando posições de prestígio junto a diversos imperadores das dinastias Ming e Qing. Tal integração refletiu-se em suas opiniões muitas vezes favoráveis ao Confucionismo e a diversas práticas e representações do Império do Meio, o que atraiu críticas, em geral vindas de outras ordens que não aprovavam o método inaciano de missionação. Permaneceu, porém, no imaginário ocidental, o fascínio pela China largamente motivado pelas informações dos jesuítas.

Palavras-chave: Jesuítas. China. Encontro de culturas.

www.utp.br/tuiuticienciaecultura/ciclo_4/tcc_48_hist_da_ccao/pdf_48/art_1.pdf

 

 

Rota da Seda no Brooklyn Museum de NYork

 

Ver mais no site do museu onde se encontra este artigo, a figura que o ilustra e outros textos e imagens:    www.brooklynmuseum.org

Ritual Wine Vessel (Guang)

Ritual Wine Vessel (Guang). China, late Shang dynasty, 13th–11th century B.C.E. Bronze, 8 1/2 x 6 1/2 x 4in. (21.6 x 16.5 x 10.2cm). Brooklyn Museum, Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Alastair B. Martin, the Guennol Collection, 72.163a–b

Long-Term Installation

Asian Galleries, 2nd Floor

The Brooklyn Museum houses one of America’s foremost collections of Asian art. The Asian galleries provide a full survey of those holdings, featuring more than 350 works of art from Japan, Korea, China, India, Southeast Asia, and the Himalayas. The galleries are home to a diverse array of objects, from glowering Japanese guardian figures to delicate Indian miniature paintings, and from the heavily wrought surface of a Chinese cloisonné altarpiece to the smooth celadon glaze of a Korean ewer.

The Chinese gallery at the Museum features objects that range in date from the Neolithic period (circa 3000 B.C.E.) to the present. The works of art on display reveal the sophistication of Chinese craftsmanship and the variety of concerns—funerary, courtly, religious, and poetic—that combined to define traditional Chinese culture. They also demonstrate an enduring respect for antiquity, visible in forms derived from ancient bronzes, emblems such as the dragon and the taotie mask, and materials such as jade, all of which were employed by Chinese artists over several centuries.

The Brooklyn Museum was one of the first American institutions to collect and exhibit Korean art, and as a result it houses one of the country’s premier collections. The gallery presents the varied art forms through which Korea distinguished itself from its neighbors, including a fine selection of ceramics such as early stoneware funerary vessels, inlaid celadons, and later wares with freely painted underglaze decoration.  Also on view are rare examples of bronzes, furniture, and painting.

Japanese works form the largest area within the Asian collections at the Brooklyn Museum. In addition to the traditional arts of Japan, the galleries include a selection of ceramics made by the great masters of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. A section of the gallery is dedicated to the art of the Ainu people of northern Japan, material rarely seen in Western museums.

The Museum’s outstanding collection of South Asian art includes works from India and surrounding areas. The objects in this collection represent the rich religious traditions of southern Asia—Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Islam—with an emphasis on figural sculpture and architectural elements. Among the strengths of the Museum’s holdings are terracotta figures dating from prehistory to the present and courtly objects made from precious materials.

Southeast Asia and the Himalayas are represented by smaller installations within the galleries, but these collections include several noteworthy objects, including large-scale sculptures from Cambodia and Thailand and early images from Kashmir and Nepal. Like South Asian traditions, the arts of these areas are primarily religious in subject or inspiration.

 

 

Viagens atuais através da antiga Rota da Seda: Sugestão de roteiro para viajantes.

 

   São roteiros perfeitamente viáveis. Recomendo especialmente a visita a DUNHUANG, uma jóia de arte budista com centenas de cavernas pintadas. No passado, foi um oásis importante para o descanso dos caravaneiros.

The Silk Road is a historically important international trade route between China and the Mediterranean. Because silk comprised a large proportion of trade along this road, in 1877, it was named ‘the Silk Road’ by Ferdinand von Richthofen, an eminent German geographer.

Xian Terracotta Warriors
Xian Terracotta Warriors

 Culture: The road is not only an ancient international trade route, but also a splendid cultural bridge liking the cultures of China, India, Persia, Arabia, Greek and Rome. The Four Great Inventions of China and religions of the West were introduced into their counterparts. 

 History: From the time Zhang Qian opened up the world-famous Silk Road during the Han Dynasty, until the collapse of the Yuan Dynasty, it enjoyed a history of about 1,600 years.

 Route: This ancient road begins at Chang’an (now Xian), then by way of the Hexi Corridor, and it reaches Dunhuang, where it divides into three, the Southern Route, Central Route and Northern Route. The three routes spread all over the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, and then they extend as far as Pakistan, India and even Rome. 

 Other roads: In fact, besides the Silk Road in the northwest of China, there are another two trade roads in the southwest of China and by sea, which also contributed greatly to the development of the world. They are called the “Southern Silk Road” and the “Silk Road on the Sea“.

Crescent Lake, Dunhuang, Gansu
Crescent Lake, Dunhuang, Gansu

 Scenery along the Road: The scenery and sights along the Silk Road are spectacular and intriguing. There are well-known Mogao Caves (Mogao Grottoes) in Dunhuang, the bustling Sunday Bazaar in Kashgar and exotic customs in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and more … 

 Silk Road Adventure: There are all kinds of tour plans for traveling the world-famous road. TravelChinaGuide provides many tour lines for visitors to experience the adventures of this ancient trade road.


Classical Silkroad Tour: 14 Days Beijing – Urumqi – Kashgar – Urumqi – Turpan – Dunhuang – Xian – Shanghai
In-depth Adventure: 22 Days Beijing – Urumqi – Korla – Kuqa – Aksu – Kashgar – Hetian – Minfeng – Korla – Turpan – Dunhuang – Xian – Shanghai
More Silk Road Tours

 Tips: It is necessary for tourists be aware of some travel essentials when they are on the road, such as weather, food, drink, accommodation, transportation and customs of minorities. Here provides detailed information about them. 

 Pictures: The pictures show the stunning scenery of this time-honored trade route. They display not only the beauty of places of historical places, but also the natural wonders.

 

Camel Train
Camel Team in Desert, Dunhuang

 

 

Texto sobre as viagens e fotos de travelchinaguide.com/silkroad